Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a relatively new class of drugs recommended for persons with type 2 diabetes who have poorly controlled blood glucose and high HbA1c levels.
Taken as an oral tablet.
There are three types of SGLT2 inhibitors that are currently available:


These pills work by preventing glucose from being absorbed in the kidneys. As a result, they decrease glucose in the blood and cause it to spill into the urine.
The treatment plan will differ for each person, but in general SGLT2 inhibitors are taken once a day before the first meal. The typical dose is 100 – 300 mg (canagliflozin), 5-10 mg (dapagliflozin), or 10 – 25 mg (empagliflozin), depending on the patient’s needs. In most cases, SGLT2 inhibitors are used in addition to other diabetes medications.
  • These medications typically lower HbA1c levels by 0.5 – 1% after about 6 months of therapy.
  • Some patients report mild weight loss after taking SGLT2 inhibitors.

Other considerations

  • SGLT2 inhibitors may increase urination and raise the risk of female yeast infections and urinary tract infections. These drugs can also lead to low blood pressure.
  • Kidney function needs to be tested before and during treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors
  • Persons with severe kidney disease or on dialysis are not recommended to be on this medicine
  • New evidence suggests that SGLT2 inhibitors might be related to the development of diabetic ketoacidosis in some patients
  • Though use of SGLT2 inhibitors in type 1 diabetes has been described, the safety of these drugs has not been studied and are not currently FDA recommended for the management of type 1 diabetes


WARNING! Women who are pregnant or who are breastfeeding should not take these medications. SGLT2 inhibitors are classified by the FDA as Category C drugs, which means that they are not considered safe during pregnancy.





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